Last edited January 14, 2003
By Hubert Ling
As explained in the movie "Jurassic Park", contained within the coils of DNA is one of the mightiest powers on earth. Coded with a simple alphabet of A, T, G, and C is the power to kill billions of organisms, change the gas concentration of the atmosphere, and yes even destroy the whole earth with a nuclear Winter.
By carelessly shifting around organisms, with their awesome genetic potential, we have caused major ecological disasters. Gone is the most important tree in the Northeast, the American Chestnut, our premier landscaping tree, the American Elm, and gone are huge tracts of productive fresh water marsh. Now these marshes contain only monocultures (only one species present) of purple loosestrife.
Cornell ecologist David Pimentel has estimated that alien species annually cause $138 billion dollars of damage to our US economy; an estimated 50,000 alien species of insects, plants and other pests now crowd our shores. The US government spent $37 million in 2000 to attempt to alleviate some of the harmful effects of invasives but that amount has done little to control the problem.
The basic problem is that all organisms have been programmed with a reproductive capacity that can easily outstrip all available resources. This humungous genetic potential is generally held in check by competition with dozens if not hundreds of other organisms, which also have similar genetic potentials. With so much competition, no one organism takes it all; generally each organism takes only a small share of the total resources of land, water, minerals, light etc.
In addition to direct or indirect competition for resources, disease agents control population growth of any one species. If any one organism grows very well, very large populations develop of that one species. These large populations are very susceptible to attack by disease agents, which include fungi, viruses, and bacteria. Disease agents spread rapidly when their hosts grow close together.
Thus, in any community a dynamic balance is maintained, where populations often ebb and surge but monocultures are rare and populations whose numbers have dwindled are under less stress and eventually recover. Native plants in any given area have adapted to all the other organisms in a given area and genetically diverse ecosystems are generally maintained.
A different scenario takes place when an alien species is transported to a new area. Although direct competition with similar species is still a problem, the new kid in the block may have no natural pests and diseases. Thus, large stands of monocultures can occur. It is generally accepted that one plant species will support 10 species of animals. If one species takes over 99% of a given habitat dozens if not hundreds of species are lost from that area and some populations are stressed enough that extinction is possible.
Humans are responsible for almost all of the invasive plant and animal problems. Many of our problem invasives were (and often still are) planted as landscape plants in New Jersey. These include: Norway Maple, Japanese Barberry, Asian Bittersweet, English Ivy, Mimosa, Wisteria, Japanese Honeysuckle, Bugleweed, Bamboo, Day Lily, Purple Loosestrife, Tansy, and Dame's Rocket.
Only a relatively few commercially important plants such as teasel, which was used in colonial days to raise the knap on woolen garments and spearmint, show much of a tendency to persist and multiply in the wild. We should probably include in this short list the important pasture clovers: White Sweet, White, and Red as plants that have become so common most people would think that they have been here forever.
Other plants have escaped local and federal projects: Multiflora Rose (previously used as crash barriers along highways, Crown Vetch (still used to stabilize steep hillsides, and Russian and Autumn Olive (used for wildlife habitat support).
We will probably never know how most of the alien plants arrived here. Many may have arrived as contaminating weed seeds along with seed stocks. It is very probable that the following list of plants arrived by that route: Common Mullein, Moth Mullein, Buttercups, Spotted Knapweed, Ox-eye Daisy, Queen Ann's Lace etc.
What can you do to help? Plant only native plants. How would you feel if you started a several billion-dollar problem such as Purple Loosestrife? Definitely avoid plants in categories 1 and 2 and support legislation to restrict these plants. Join the Native Plant Society or other conservation groups. Other sources of information include the New Jersey Department of Agriculture Invasive Weed Council, Invasivespecies.gov , and The Nature Conservancy.
Listed below are the scientific and common names for problem invasive plants for NJ. These lists are not complete and we would like additions, modifications and suggestions. This list will be updated.
|type||scientific name||common name|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Achillea millefolium||Yarrow|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Alliaria petiolata||Garlic Mustard|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Artemisia vulgaris||Mugwort|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Cichorium intybus||Chickory|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Coronilla varia||Crown Vetch|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Daucus carota||Wild Carrot|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Glechoma hederacea||Gill over the ground|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Hesperis matronalis||Danes Rocket|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Lythrum salicaria||Purple Loosestrife|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Malva moschata||Musk Mallow|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Meliotus alba||White Sweet Clover|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Plantago lanceolata||English Plantain|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Polygonium cuspidatam||Japanese Knotweed|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Rumex crispus||Curly Dock|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Trifolium pratense||Red Clover|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Trifolium repens||White Clover|
|Monocot||Allium vineale||Field Garlic|
|Monocot||Arundinaria bambusa||Any Hardy Bamboo|
|Monocot||Cynodon dactylon||Bermuda Grass|
|Monocot||Dactylis glomerata||Orchard Grass|
|Monocot||Digitaria sanguinalis||Crab Grass|
|Monocot||Echinochloa crusgalli||Barnyard Grass|
|Monocot||Hemercallus fulva||Day Lily|
|Monocot||Microstegium vimineum||Japanese Stilt Grass|
|Monocot||Phragmites australis||Common Reed|
|Woody Plant||Acer platanoides||Norway Maple|
|Woody Plant||Alianthus altissima||Tree of Heaven|
|Woody Plant||Berberis thunbergii||Japanese Barberry|
|Vine||Celastrus orbiculatus||Asian Bittersweet|
|Woody Plant||Elaeaghus angustifolia||Russian Olive|
|Woody Plant||Elaeaghus umbellata||Autumn Olive|
|Vine||Hedera helix||English Ivy|
|Vine||Lonicera japonica||Japanese Honeysuckle|
|Woody Plant||Rhamnus cartharticus||Buckthorn|
|Woody Plant||Rhamnus frangula||Alder Buckthorn|
|Woody Plant||Rosa multiflora||Multiflora Rose|
|type||scientific name||common name|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Ajuga reptans||Common Bugleweed|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Centaurea maculosa||Spotted Knapweed|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Chelidonium majus||Celandine|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Chrysanthemum leucanthemum||Ox-Eye Daisy|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Dianthus armeria||Depford Pink|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Galinsoga ciliata||Galinsoga|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Lamium purpureum||Purple Dead Nettle|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Linaria vulgaris||Butter-and-Eggs|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Lysimachia nummularia||Moneywort|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Matricaria matricariodes||Pineapple Weed|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Mentha spicata||Spearmint|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Polygonum persicaria||Lady's-Thumb|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Portulaca oleracea||Purslane|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Ranunculus acris||Common Buttercup|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Ranunculus bulbosus||Bulbous Buttercup|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Ranunculus ficaria||Lesser Celandine|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Ranunculus repens||Creeping Buttercup|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Rumex acetosella||Sheep's Sorrel|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Rumex obtusifolius||Broad Dock|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Verbascum thapsus||Common Mullein|
|Herbaceous Dicot||Verbascum blattaria||Moth Mullein|
|Monocot||Commelina communis||Day Flower|
|Woody Plant||Albizia julibrissin||Mimosa|
|Woody Plant||Prunus avium||Crab Cherry|